The way how new Google Consumer Surveys works is that businesses and companies that need to get some market research data can create a micro-survey using Google consumer surveys. Companies can ask customers about their new products or services or find out about their brand awareness, brand usage, purchase behaviour or intent, ad effectiveness, customer satisfaction or many other aspect of their business. This new service is really just to make expensive and time and resource consuming market research simple and fast.
Image below basically shows how the survey works:
And there is also a video that will explain how the consumer surveys work:
For your question, how to make money or if you can make money with consumer surveys then the answer is yes.
As a website owner you can become a survey publisher, showing surveys on your websites and get paid when visitors complete the survey.
It will be similar to AdSense, adding few lines of code to your site and the survey box appears before visitors can read your content and once they take the quick one question survey by choosing an answer, the survey box disappears and visitor can see the content of your site.
The survey box may look like this:
How much you will get paid for publishing surveys on your site is also similar to AdSense where you get certain percentage of what advertisers are paying.
Here are the prices what businesses will pay for the response:
So if your site has some premium quality content or you would offer signup for popular free eBook and visitor needs to complete survey before they can access the content or signup form you can potentially make lot of money and there are obviously lot of other clever ways you can get people to complete the surveys so potential to make money with this is great.
There is a sign up form for publishers that are interested in displaying surveys on their site.
Also here is official Google Consumer Survey Page where you can get more information and details how it works.